Reference materials


Basic references 

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

  • Rossi S, Hallett M, Rossini PM, Pascual Leone A and Safety of TMS Consensus Group. Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research. Clin Neurophysiol. 2009;120(12):2008-39. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2009.08.016. Link

  • Rossini PM, Burke D, Chen R, Cohen LG, Daskalakis Z, Di Iorio R, Di Lazzaro V, Ferreri F, Fitzgerald PB, George MS, Hallett M, Lefaucheur JP, Langguth B, Matsumoto H, Miniussi C, Nitsche MA, Pascual Leone A, Paulus W, Rossi S, Rothwell JC, Siebner HR, Ugawa Y, Walsh V, Ziemann U. Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord, roots and peripheral nerves: Basic principles and procedures for routine clinical and research application. An updated report from an I.F.C.N. Committee. Clin Neurophysiol. 2015;126(6):1071-107. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.02.001. Link

Low Intensity Transcranial Electric Stimulation (TES)

  • A. Antal, I. Alekseichuk, M. Bikson, J. Brockmöller, A.R. Brunoni, R. Chen, L.G. Cohen, G. Dowthwaite, J. Ellrich, A. Flöel, F. Fregni, M.S. George, R. Hamilton, J. Haueisen, C.S. Herrmann, F.C. Hummel, J.P. Lefaucheur, D. Liebetanz, C.K. Loo, C.D. McCaig, C. Miniussi, PC Miranda, V Moliadze, MA Nitsche, R Nowak, F Padberg, A Pascual-Leone, W Poppendieck, A Priori, S Rossi, PM Rossini, J Rothwell, MA Rueger, G Ruffini, K Schellhorn, HR Siebner, Y Ugawa, V Walsh, A Wexler, U Ziemann, M Hallett, W Paulus Low intensity transcranial electric stimulation: Safety, ethical, legal regulatory and application guidelines Clin Neurophysiol. 2017 Link

  • Woods AJ, Antal A, Bikson M, Boggio PS, Brunoni AR, Celnik P, Cohen LG, Fregni F, Herrmann CS, Kappenman ES, Knotkova H, Liebetanz D, Miniussi C, Miranda PC, Paulus W, Priori A, Reato D, Stagg C, Wenderoth N, Nitsche MA. A technical guide to tDCS, and related non-invasive brain stimulation tools. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016 ;127(2):1031-48. doi: 10.1016/j.clinph.2015.11.012. Link

Additional references

  • Fertonani, A., & Miniussi, C. (2017). Transcranial Electrical Stimulation: What We Know and Do Not Know About Mechanisms. The Neuroscientist : a review journal bringing neurobiology, neurology and psychiatry23(2), 109–123. Link


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